In Europe, the grammar school or academy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longer history.
Education in Argentina
The school system is free and mandatory.
Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation:
Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12 Certificate
Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies Certificate / Northern Territory Certificate of Education (NTCE)
Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE)
New South Wales: Higher School Certificate (HSC)
Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education (TCE)
Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE)
Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE)
 BrazilMain article: Education in Brazil
In Brazil, high school is officially called Ensino Médio (formerly Segundo Grau) and is also informally known as colegial. It is the last phase to basic education. Brazilian high school lasts 3 years, attempting to deepen what students have learned in the Ensino Fundamental. Brazilian high school students are referenced by their year – 1st, 2nd and 3rd years.
The best scores in vestibular and in Enem and the best universities are concentrated on the Southern region of the country, mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, and in the Federal District. The lack of funds and historical and social problems contribute to poor attendance from the students, especially those in public schools. Nevertheless, some are national models, such as the Colégio Pedro II, named after the 19th century emperor.
The educational year begins in February and finishes in December; institutions are permitted to define their own actual start and end dates. They must, however, provide at least 200 days of classes per year.
Universities are also divided into public and private. At this level, public ones are considered excellent and their vestibular exam is highly competitive (the exam for med school in UNICAMP may hit 300 candidates per place). For better preparation, therefore, many students take a curso pré-vestibular (university preparation course), which is offered by large private high schools.
Education in the Czech Republic
Strední odborné ucilište (SOU) - designed for students going into a trade (e.g., carpentry, masonry, auto-mechanic etc.) Education is 3 years long and entrance exam free, combined with practice(one week study in school/one week practice in factory, bakery,building site... etc.), finished with a certificate.
Strední odborná škola (SOŠ) - designed for students going into a profession (accountant, technician, kindergarten teacher..) and finishes with maturita as exit exam. The leaving exam consist of 2 compulsory and 2 optional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional ones depend on the type of school (mathematics, physics, accounting, etc.) The study is 4 years long and you need to pass an entrance exam (Czech Language and Mathematics or Physics, varies with the type of school)
The maturita is required for study in University. The Abitur from Gymnasium is better for Humanistic pointed University and SOŠ Abitur is better for Technical pointed university.
Education in Denmark
Education in Finland
The Finnish education system is a comparatively egalitarian Nordic system. This means for example no tuition fees for full-time students and free meals are served to pupils. There are private schools but they are made unattractive by legislation.
The second level education is not compulsory, but an overwhelming majority attends. There is a choice between upper secondary school (lukio, gymnasium) and vocational school (ammatillinen oppilaitos, yrkesinstitut). Graduates of both upper secondary school and vocational school can apply to study in further education (University and Polytechnics).
In the OECD's international assessment of student performance, PISA, Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003, Finnish 15-year-olds came first in reading literacy, science, and mathematics; and second in problem solving, worldwide. The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.
collège caters for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 15
lycées provides a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. Pupils are prepared for the diploma baccalauréat.
See article Secondary education in France.
Education in Germany
The German school system is free and compulsory through age 18. After the Grundschule (elementary school lasting 4–6 years), teachers recommend each pupil for one of three different types of secondary education. Parents have the final say about which school their child will attend.
Hauptschule - designed for students going into trades such as construction; complete after 9th or 10th grade. During apprenticeships, pupils then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has been subject to sigdren of immigrants with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
Gymnasium - academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or polytechnics. Some offer a classical education (Latin, Greek), while others concentrate on economics and the like. The curriculum leading to the Abitur degree were recently reduced from 13th grade to 12th grade ("G8," eight years of Gymnasium).
The Gesamtschule (comparable to American schools) puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite rare.
Students with special needs are assigned to Förderschule or Sonderschule.
Education in Hong Kong
secondary school (??, Cantonese: jung1 hok6), college (??)
The HKCEE is equivalent to the British GCSE and HKALE is equivalent to the British A-level.
As of October 2004, there has been heated discussion on proposed changes in the education system, which includes (amongst others) reduction of the duration of secondary education from seven years to six years, and merging the two exams HKCEE and HKALE into one exam. The proposed changes will take effect in 2010.
India This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider moving more of the content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. (June 2010)
Education in India
On the basis of Constitutional mandate provided in Article 41, 45, 46, 21A and various judgments of Supreme Court the Government of India has taken several steps to eradicate illiteracy, improvement the quality of education and make children back to school who left the school for one or the reasons. Some of these programmes are National Technology Mission, District Primary Education Programme, and Nutrition Support for Primary Education, National Open School, Mid- Day Meal Scheme, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and other state specific initiatives. Besides, this several states have enacted legislation to provide free and compulsory primary education such as- the Kerala Education Act 1959, the Punjab Primary Education Act 1960, the Gujarat Compulsory Primary Education Act 1961, U.P. Basic Education Act 1972, Rajasthan Primary Education Act 1964, etc.
Historical backgroundIndia has a long tradition of organized education. As a historian has put it, “There is no other country where the love of learning had so early an origin or has exercised so lasting and powerful an influence.” However, educational effort in the country has come a long way from this traditional position in its definition, coverage as well as impact.The current educational system in the country operates in an altogether different context from the classical past. The country’s commitment to the provision of education for all and its endeavor to achieve this goal in a speedy fashion has to be seen in this complex milieu within which the educational system is currently functioning.
As the veteran educationist Shri J.P.Naik put it: “The Indian Society, especially the Hindu Society has been extremely inegalitarian, and this (provision of equality of educational opportunity) is the one value on the basis of which the society can be humanized and strengthened. In fact, the issue is so crucial that the Indian society cannot even hope to survive except on the basis of an egalitarian reorganization”. Between 1813 and 1921, the British administrators laid the foundations of the modern educational system. The principal positive contribution of the British administrators to equality was to give all citizens open access to educational institutions maintained from or supported by public funds. For instance, the worst difficulties were perhaps encountered when the problem of educating the “untouchable” castes came up.
1913. It begins as under: “His Most Gracious Imperial Majesty the King Emperor, in replying to the address of the Calcutta University on the 6th January 1912, said: -
The Government of India, have decided, with the approval of the Secretary of State, to assist Local Governments, by means of large grants from imperial revenues as funds become available’, to extend comprehensive systems of education in the several provinces. Each province has its own educational system, which has grown up under local conditions and become familiar to the people as a part of their general well being. In view of the diverse social conditions in India there cannot in practice be one set of regulations and one rate of progress for the whole of India. Even within provinces there is scope for greater variety in types if institutions that exists today. The Government of India have no desire to deprive Local Governments of interest and initiative in education. But it is important at intervals to review educational policy in India as a whole. Principles, bearing on education in its wider aspects and under modern conditions and conceptions, on orientalia and on the special needs of the domiciled community, were discussed at three important conferences of experts and representative non-officials held within the last two years. These principles are the basis of accepted policy. How far they can at any time find local application must be determined with reference to local conditions.
A core curriculum is emphasized at the elementary school level. This is a carefully planned curriculum that in content it compares favourably with those adopted in a number of other countries. A common core can help in overcoming discrepancies between the educational opportunities of urban and rural people, and that of men and women, but it cannot eliminate those difficulties unless literacy rates improve, greater participation occurs in school and other changes take place in society.
In addition to the regular statistical return system, which is regularly compiled and published under the heading Education in India each academic year (There are normally 16 Tables. These statistics are also followed by 5 or 6 illustrations), there are also two expert institutions under the aegis of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, viz. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) which carry out regular research and surveys, and in-depth analyses.
Efforts of varied types were made by the States for the spread of literacy. Among these, the Gram Shikshan Mohim initiated in Satara District of Maharashtra in 1959 was one of the successful mass campaigns. It aimed at completing literacy work village-by-village within a short period of 3 to 6 months, through the honorary services of primary teachers and middle-school and high school students, supported by the entire community. It achieved a good deal of success but suffered from the lack of follow-up due to financial constraints and some of its good work was lost as a consequence. In spite of these varied initiatives the program of adult literacy did not make much headway.
The topic was dealt at length by the Kothari Commission (1964–66) which emphasized the importance of spreading literacy as fast as possible. The Commission also observed that "literacy if it is to be worthwhile, must be functional". It suggested the following measures: ·Expansion of universal schooling of five-year duration for the age group 6 - 11. ·Provision of part-time education for those children of age group 11 - 14 who had either missed schooling or dropped out of school prematurely. ·Provision of part-time general and vocational education to the younger adults of age group 15 – 30. ·Use of mass media as a powerful tool of environment building for literacy. ·Setting up of libraries. ·Need for follow up program. ·Active role of universities and voluntary organisation at the State and district levels.
The National Policy on Education in 1968 not only endorsed the recommendations of the Education Commission but also reiterated the significance of universal literacy and developing adult and continuing education as matters of priority. While the formal elementary education program was supplemented by a Non-formal Education system, it was also decided to undertake Adult Literacy programs culminating in the Total Literacy mission approach.
A multi-pronged approach of universalization of elementary education and universal adult literacy has been adopted for achieving total literacy. The National Policy on Education (1986) has given an unqualified priority to the following three programs for eradication of illiteracy, particularly among women:- (a) Universalization of elementary education and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age. (b) A systematic program of non-formal education in the educationally backward states. (c) The National Literacy Mission which aims at making 100 million adults literate by 1997.
Of course, even before Independence, there were adult education programs. Mahatma Gandhi had education as one of his constructive programs, and as a mass campaign had through his movement, tried to make districts completely literate. Some success was also achieved. For instance Surat District, in erstwhile Bombay Presidency had been totally literate, but again relapsed into illiteracy for lack of follow-up. There were efforts at spreading by the Baroda Rulers, supplemented by a live library movement. Here again lack of follow-up and sustained efforts caused a relapse into illiteracy among the vulnerable sections. There were voluntary agencies working in the field. Some agencies as the Karnataka Adult Education Council, Gujarat Social Education Committee and Bombay City Social Education Committee has had large programs extending to the whole state or a metropolitan city. Literacy House of Lucknow did commendable work in this field. It came into existence in 1953 when its founder, Mrs. Welthy H. Fisher established it in small verandah at Allahabad, with a view to eradicate illiteracy and promote education in India. It was shifted to Lucknow in 1956.
The University Grants Commission, at its meeting held in 5 May 1971, considered the general pattern of development and assistance towards adult education in the university and agreed that “assistance to universities for program of adult education be made on a sharing basis of 75:25 and that the Commission’s assistance to university would not exceed Rs. 3 lakhs for the Fourth Plan period.” Departments of Continuing Education took up the work of “University goes to Masses”. The slogan “Each One, Teach One” caught the imagination of not only the students, but also a large number of educated individuals, and it looked like these programs will meet a major success. However, like most enthusiastically launched programs, they also fell by the wayside. A Farmers Training and Functional literacy project was launched in 1968-69, coordinating the activities of Ministries of Education, Agriculture and Information & Broadcasting. The Central Advisory Board of Education in its November 1975 meeting asked that the exclusive emphasis on formal system of education should be given up and a large element of non-formal education should be introduced within the system.
The National Adult Education Program (NAEP) was inaugurated on October 2, 1978. In a statement in the Parliament on April 5, 1977, the Union Education Minister declared that “along with universalization of elementary education, highest priority in educational planning would be accorded to adult education.” The objective of the NAEP is “to organise adult education programs, with literacy as an indispensable component, for approximately 100 million illiterate persons in the age-group 15-35 with a view to providing them with skills for self-directed learning leading to self-reliant and active role in their own development and in the development of their environment.” In concrete terms, three R’s, social awareness and functionality are the three basic components of the NAEP. In spite of careful planning before the launch of this program (it had envisaged a phased program), the Sardar Patel Institute of Social and Economic Research, after a survey carried out in the initial flush of enthusiasm, observed about the progress of the program in a progressive state like Gujarat: “On the whole, while the NAEP in Gujarat was generally found to be addressed to the target groups kept in view under the NAEP and it was found to have some other commendable aspects, all things considered, its achievement in terms of spread of literacy is rather modest, and more so in terms of social awareness and functionality”. The report had gone on to say: “The more crucial aspects like the content of education, pedagogy, etc. can be probed into only if longer time is available, or ideally, on an ongoing basis. It is these aspects which have contributed most to the continuing stagnation of even the spread of literacy in the country. This study is not sufficient to indicate whether breakthrough in these areas is being made, and whether the adult education program is assuming the character of a Mass Movement as would be desirable and is clearly the intent of NAEP” (1979).
And yet, the importance of this component cannot be gainsaid. “In our country, numerous persons enter adulthood without proper education and consequently their self-confidence is shaky. In a fast-changing environment of economic and cultural change, they will continue to be edged out unless their capacities are actively consolidated and improved so as to encounter the world outside on equal terms”. This program can be in the nature of a Sunset program (referred to later in this Paper); but till then, i.e. literacy becomes self-sustaining fact with self-arising demand for its very usefulness and need for a fuller life, no Government should be allowed to ignore this aspect.
In a UNESCO publication, “Education in Asia and the Pacific”, Raja Roy Singh has rightly written: “The dynamics of education and its role in each society in development and transformation make it essential that education continuously renews itself in order to prepare for a future rather than for obsolescence. This renewal process derives from a variety of sources which include: the growth of human knowledge, which is the basic component of education; the heritage of collective experience and values which education transmits to the new generations; the means and methods of communication by which knowledge and values are transmitted and the new values and aspirations which the human spirit adds to the collective experience and wisdom of the past or by which the heritage of the past is reinterpreted and reassessed.”
2.State Adult Education Program (SAEP): Funded fully by the State Governments, this program aims at strengthening ongoing Adult Education Programs and expanding its coverage to ensure that the programs reach women and other underprivileged groups.
3.Adult Education through Voluntary Agencies: A Central Scheme of Assistance to Voluntary Agencies exists to facilitate the participation of Voluntary Agencies. The Government of India provides financial grants to Voluntary Agencies on program basis.
4.Involvement of students and youth in Adult Education Programs. The University Grants Commission provides 100 per cent financial assistance to colleges and universities to support their active involvement in literary and adult education activities. Specifically, 50,000 adult education centres are expected to be organized under this program. Simultaneously with the adult education program, the college and university students will be engaged in spreading universal primary education among non-school-going children.
5.Nehru Yuvak Kendras: This non-student youth organization has been developing training programs to educate young people according to their identified felt needs.
6.Non-Formal Education for Women and Girls: This project puts special emphasis on improving women’s socio-economic status by ensuring their participation in development programs in addition to efforts for family planning and promotion of welfare of children. This program is a joint effort of the Government of India and UNICEF.
7.Shramik Vidyapeeths: This program has been established and ever since funded by the Government of India with the aim to provide integrated education to urban and individual workers and their families in order to raise their productivity and enrich their present life.
8.Central Board for Workers Education : This program aims at providing literacy to unskilled and semi-skilled persons as well as raising their awareness and functionality. Its special feature is to meet the recognized needs of the workers with a specially matched program.
9.Functional Literacy for Adult Women : Started in the International Year of Women, under the sponsorship of the Government of India, this program covers health and hygiene, food and nutrition, home management and child care, education, and vocational and occupational skills.
10.Incentives Awards Scheme for Female Adult Literacy : designed to promote literacy among 15-35 year old women, this scheme presents awards to adult education centres (at the district, and Union Territory levels). At the State level, the awards are intended for equipments of various kinds as well as training facilities.
11.Post-Literacy and Follow-up Program : The program has been in operation since 1984-1985. The Directorate of Adult Education has developed broad guidelines for the preparation of neo-literate materials for the State Governments and State Resource Centres. Prototype neo-literate materials have also been produced.
The listed activities reflect India’s determination to make the entire population literate by involving the other Government agencies related to development as well Universities and Voluntary Organization in literary activities. The responsibility for planning and financing these activities, however, rests with the Central and State Governments.
Education system in IndiaThe education system in India has savored a special bond between the teacher and the pupil since time unknown. In fact, India was the country to have established what we know as the 'gurukul' system of education. However, with the coming of the Britishers, English has become a part and parcel of Indian education system. Today English is the third major medium of instruction in India after Hindi and Marathi.
The present education system in India mainly comprises primary education, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher education. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Each of secondary and senior secondary education consists of two years of education. Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or the 12th standard. Depending on the stream, doing graduation in India can take three to five years. Post graduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational institutes also remains open.
With more than 17,000 colleges, 400 universities, 13 institutes of national importance and various other vocational institutes, the higher education system in India is one of the largest in the world.
However, it is the fast integrating world economy and corresponding rise of students mobility that have made studying in India an attractive option. There are a large number of Indian as well as foreign students who apply every year to Indian universities and colleges. For all those who wish to study in India, it is very important to get prior and correct information about the courses that you would like to undertake, the university you want to apply to and how to go about the application procedure. For an international student, it is also important to know the accommodation facilities, weather conditions, food habits and cost of living in the city in which he or she intends to study.
Education for the marginalized in IndiaAs education is the means for bringing socio- economic transformation in a society, various measures are being taken to enhance the access of education to the marginalized sections of the society. One such measure is the introduction of the reservation system in the institutes of higher education. Under the present law, 7.5% seats in the higher educational institutes are reserved for the scheduled tribes, 15% for scheduled castes and 27% for the non creamy layers of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs). Under the Indian constitution, various minority groups can also set up their own educational institutes. Efforts are also being taken to improve the access to higher education among the women of India by setting up various educational institutes exclusively for them or reserving seats in the already existing institutes. The growing acceptance of distance learning courses and expansion of the open university system is also contributing a lot in the democratization of higher education in India.
Colleges and institutes The international students are required to carry the necessary documents along with them such as admission letter, passport, residence permit etc. The international students can avail the residential permit after registering themselves at the Foreigner’s Registration Office (F.R.O) within a period of seven days from their arrival.
All over the country offer different courses for the international students. International students can apply for medical courses, engineering courses, applied arts courses etc. The government has reserved some seats for foreign students and students from other developing countries. International students can get admission through this reserved quota. For more information related to these admissions, the students can contact the Indian High Commission located in their countries.
The Government of India offers various scholarships annually to international students. These scholarships are offered to those who are interested in pursuing their studies in India. Some of the scholarships offered by the government are Cultural Exchange Program, Commonwealth Scheme, SAARC Scholarship Scheme and ICCR Scholarship Scheme.
Advantages of studying in IndiaIndia is fast becoming a major economic power in the world today. And if its growth trend continues for some more years, it would soon be playing a major role in the world economy along with China. This itself has been a major cause of attraction for many international students. Moreover, India's successful stint with democracy (except the years between 1975–1977) has also been a major magnetic force for scholars around the world. However, apart from knowing India well, there are some other advantages that are attracting students to study in India. Some of these are -
The cost of education in India is quite low as compared to many other countries of the world.
Financial Assistance: Various scholarships, education loans and other financial aids are now available for studying in India today.
Consultation Service: The government of India provides consultation service to the interested international students through Education Consultants of India (Ed.CIL). Thus one can get all the information about the Indian education system, cost of education, duration, visa, accommodation facilities even before landing up in India.
Note-The right to education will be meaningful only and only if the all the levels education reaches to all the sections of the people otherwise it will fail to achieve the target set out by our Founder Father to make Indian society an egalitarian society.
Education in Iraq
Girls at a secondary school in IraqSecondary Education in Iraq comprises TWO stages, each ending in Baccalaureate Examination
Intermediate three years
Preparatory three years.
No student is admitted to college in Iraq before passing the Baccalaureate Examination held by this Ministry for Preparatory Schools.
The maximum obtainable mark is 100, the minimum passing mark is 50.
Education in Malaysia
A Malaysian secondary school Forms are known as Lower Secondary (Menengah Rendah), while Forms 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary (Menengah Tinggi). Streaming into Art, Science or Commerce streams is done at the beginning of the Upper Secondary stage. Students sit for a standardised test at the end of both stages; Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) for Lower Secondary, and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM, equivalent to the O-Level examination) for Upper Secondary. At the end of the sixth form, students sit for the Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia or the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (equivalent to the A levels). The language of instruction in national secondary schools is Malay except for language, science and mathematics subjects. Science and mathematics subjects are taught in English since 2003, but Malay will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.
Education in Mexico
Education in the Netherlands
In The Netherlands, high school is called middelbare school (literally: "middle-level school") and starts right after the 6th grade of primary school (group 8). The pupils who attend high school are around the age of 12. Because education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16 (and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18), all pupils must attend high school.
The high schools are part of the voortgezet onderwijs (literally: "continued education"). The voortgezet onderwijs consists of 3 main streams: vmbo, which has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels; havo, which has 5 grades, and vwo, which has 6 grades. The choice for a particular stream is made based on the scores of an aptitude test (most commonly the CITO test), the advice of the grade 6 teacher, and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers. It is possible to switch between streams. After completing a particular stream, a pupil can continue in the penultimate year of the next stream, from vmbo to havo, and from havo to vwo.
Secondary education in New Zealand
In New Zealand students attend secondary school from the ages from about 13 to 18. Formerly known as Forms 3 to 7, these grades are now known as Years 9 to 13. Schooling is compulsory until the student's 15th (with permission) or 16th birthday. In some areas of the country, secondary school is colloquially known as "college". NCEA is the Government-supported school qualification. New Zealand also has intermediate schools, but these cover the last two years of primary education (years 7 and 8) and are not secondary schools.
Education in Pakistan
ParaguaySee also: List of high schools in Paraguay
In Paraguay, the secondary education is called Educación Media. After nine year of Educación Escolar Básica (Primary School), the student can choose to go to either a Bachillerato Técnico (Vocational School) or a Bachillerato Científico (High School), both are part of the Educación Media' system. This two forms of secondary education last three years, and are usually located in the same campus called Colegio. The Bachillerato Técnico combine general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. Some of the fields are mechanical, electricity, commerce, construction, business administration, etc.
After completing secondary education, one can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both Técnico and Científico schooling.
Education in Portugal
Education in the Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland secondary school starts at the age of 12, and lasts three or optionally five or six years. The main types of secondary school are: community schools, comprehensive schools, colleges (though this term is more usually applied to third-level institutions like universities), vocational schools, voluntary secondary schools and meánscoileanna (secondary schools that teach all subjects through Irish). After three years (age 14-16), every student takes a compulsory state exam known as the Junior Certificate. Typically a student will sit exams in 9 to 11 subjects; English (L1), Irish (L2), a Foreign Language (L3) and Mathematics are compulsory.
There is an optional year in many secondary schools in Ireland known as Transition Year, which some students choose to take after completing the Junior Certificate, and before starting the Leaving Certificate. Focusing on broadening horizons, the year is often structured around student projects such as producing a magazine, charity work, running a small business, etc. Regular classes may be mixed with classes on music, drama, public speaking, etc. Transition Year is not formally examined but student progress is monitored by teachers on a continuous basis. Programs vary from school to school. This year also focuses on giving the children an insight into the working world through work experience placements.
In addition to the main school system, Ireland has a parallel system of vocational schools, which place less focus on academic subjects and more on vocational and technical skills - around 25% of students attend these. Many vocational schools also offer night classes to adults. There is also a prominent movement known as Gaelscoileanna where every subject is taught through the Irish Language, and these are growing fast in number.
High school in Republic of Macedonia is called "?????? ????????" or "middle school", and the structure is left from the socialists period. Reforms are conducting at the moment, so the education would be appropriate with the most of the leading world countries.That means that there are still many forms. In general there is high school for preparing for every faculty on the university. There are: electro technical high school, mechanical high school, economics high school, pharmaceutical, medical,...and natural sciences and linguistics gymnasium. The high school is attended between the years of 14 and 18.
Secondary education in Russia
There were around 60,000 general education schools in 2007–2008 school year; this number includes ca. 5,000 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc., 2,300 advanced general-purpose schools and 1,800 schools for all categories of disabled children; it does not include vocational technical school and technicums. Private schools accounted for 0.3% of elementary school enrolment in 2005 and 0.5% in 2005.
According to a 2005 UNESCO report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.
Secondary education in Singapore
Based on results of the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), Singapore's students undergo secondary education in either the Special(Abolished in 2008), Express, Normal streams or the Integrated Programme (implemented in 2004). Both the Special and Express are 4-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (GCE) 'Ordinary' - 'O' level examination. The difference between Special and Express is that the former takes higher Mother Tongue, which can be used as a first language in exams instead of the subject "mother tongue" that Express students take. However if some Express students can cope with higher Mother Tongue, they are allowed to used it as a first language in exams too.
The Normal stream is a four-year course leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Normal" - "N" level examination, with the possibility of a 5th year followed by a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Ordinary" - "O" level examination. It is split into "Normal (Academic)" and "Normal (Technical)" where in the latter students take subjects that are technical in nature, such as Design and Technology.
The Integrated Programme (IP) is a 6 year programme offered to the top 10 percent of the cohort to pass through the O level exams, and go straight to the affiliated JC.
After the second year of a secondary school course, students are typically streamed into a wide range of course combinations, making the total number of subject they have to sit for in "O" level six to ten subjects. This includes science (Physics, Biology and Chemistry), humanities (Elective Geography/History, Pure Geography/History, Social Studies, Literature, etc.) and additional mathematics subject at a higher level, or "combined" subject modules.
Co-curricular activities have become compulsory at the Secondary level, where all pupils must participate in at least one core CCA, and participation is graded together with other things like Leadership throughout the four years of Secondary education, in a scoring system. Competitions are organised so that students can have an objective towards to work, and in the case of musical groups, showcase talents.
SloveniaMain article: Education in Slovenia
In Slovenia, a variety of high-school institutions for secondary education exists one can choose in accordance with his or her interests, abilities and beliefs. The majority of them are public and government-funded, although there are some diocesan upper secondary schools and a Waldorf upper secondary school, which are private and require tuition to be paid.
Technical high schools last for four years and cover a wide range of disciplines. They end with a vocational leaving examination and allow pupils to study at vocational or professional colleges.
Vocational high schools come in two varieties: the dual and in school-based programme. For the former, the apprenticeship is provided by employers, while the practical training for the latter is offered in school. Both of them complete with a final examination. Students may continue their education in the two-year vocational-technical programme (colloquially known as 3+2 programme), which prepares them for vocational leaving exam if they want to pursue higher education.
The leaving exam course is a one-year programme, intended for vocational leaving exam graduates. After completing leaving exam course, they take the leaving examination, which makes the eligible for university education.
The Vocational course is a one-year programme provided to upper secondary school students who, for various reasons, do not want to continue their education. It concludes with a final examinations, qualifying the applicants for a selected occupation.
In the United Kingdom secondary schools offer secondary education covering the later years of schooling. State secondary schools in England and Wales are classed as either (selective) grammar schools, (non-selective) comprehensive schools, city technology colleges or academies. Within Scotland, there are only two types of state-run schools, Roman Catholic or non-denominational. Most secondary schools in England and Wales are comprehensive schools. Grammar schools have been retained in some counties in England. Academies (previously known as city academies) are a new type of school introduced in 2000 by the New Labour government of Tony Blair. Independent secondary schools generally take pupils at 13.
The table below lists the equivalent secondary school year systems used in the United Kingdom:
Scotland England, Wales Northern Ireland Equivalent Ages
Primary 7 Year 7 (First Form) Year 8 (First Form) 11-12
First Year (Secondary 1) Year 8 (Second Form) Year 9 (Second Form) 12-13
Second Year (Secondary 2) Year 9 (Third Form) Year 10 (Third Form) 13-14
Third Year (Secondary 3) Year 10 (Fourth Form) Year 11 (Fourth Form) 14-15
Fourth Year (Secondary 4) Year 11 (Fifth Form) Year 12 (Fifth Form) 15-16
Fifth Year (Secondary 5) Year 12
Lower Sixth AS
First Year College Year 13 [Post 16] Lower Sixth 16-17
Sixth Year (Secondary 6) Year 13
Upper Sixth A2
Second Year College Year 14 [Post 16] Upper Sixth 17-18
Private schools in England and Wales generally still refer to years 7-11 as 1st-5th Form, or alternatively privates schools refer to Year 7 as IIIrds (Thirds), Y8 as LIV (Lower Four), Y9 as UIV (Upper Four), Y10 as LV (Lower Fifth), Y11 as UV (Upper Fifth) and then Sixth-Form.
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, students usually transfer from primary school straight to secondary school at age 11. In a few parts of the UK there are middle schools for ages 9 to 13 (similar to American middle schools), and upper schools for ages 13–18. A handful of 8-12 middle schools, an 12-16 or 18 secondary schools still exist. These schools were first introduced in September 1968, and the number rose dramatically during the 1970s, but the number of such schools has declined since the mid 1980s.
It is uncommon, but sometimes secondary schools (particularly in South West Wales) can also be split into 'Upper' (ages 13–16) and 'Lower' secondary schools (ages 11–13).
Education is compulsory up until the end of year 11 (the last Friday in June in the academic year a person turns 16), and schooling can continue for a further two years after that. Traditionally the five years of compulsory secondary schooling from ages 11 to 16 were known as "first year" through to "fifth year," (and still are in the private sector) but from September 1990 these years were renumbered Year 7 through to Year 11 (Year 8 to Year 12 in Northern Ireland) with the coming of the National Curriculum.
This is an unusually specialised curriculum for this age group by international standards, and recently some moves have been made to increase the number of subjects studied. After attaining the relevant A Level qualifications the student can enter university.
Education in Scotland
The first and second years of secondary school (abbreviated to S1 and S2) is a continuation of the 5-14 curriculum started in primary school. After which students choose which subjects they wish to study with certain compulsory subjects such as English and Mathematics for S3 and S4. These are called Standard Grades, but some schools use Intermediates which take two years to complete with an exam at the end of S4. After Standard Grades/Intermediates, some students leave to gain employment or attend further education colleges, however nowadays most students study for Highers, of which five are usually studied. These take a year to complete. After which some students decide to apply for university or stay on for 6th year, where other Highers are gained, or Advanced Highers are studied. Due to the nature of schooling in Scotland, undergraduate honours degree programmes are four years long as matriculation is normally at the completion of highers in S5 (age 16-17), which compares with three years for the rest of the UK. As well as instruction through the English language education Gaelic medium education is also available throughout Scotland.
As part of education in the United States, secondary education comprises grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. This depends on the school district and how it is comprised. Grades 9 through 12 is the most common grade structure for high school.
VietnamHigh school in Vietnam is called Trung hoc pho thong, which mean "Popular Middle School", for children from grade ten to grade twelve (age of 16 to 18). In high school, students have 12 subjects to learn, and all the 12 subjects are compulsory. For each main subject (Literature, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography and Foreign language), there are two levels of study: Basic and Advanced. Subjects in advanced level will receive more time and intensiveness than the basic ones do. Students are divided into five groups:
Basic group: All subjects are in basic level.
Group A: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are in advanced level.
Group B: Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology are in advanced level.
Group C: Literature, History and Geography are in advanced level.
Group D: Mathematics, Literature and Foreign language are in advanced level.
Students will graduate from high school if they have passed Graduation Tests of 6 subjects. If not, they must wait for the next year's tests. Students must graduate from high school to attend a university or college.
Names for secondary education by countryArgentina: Secundaria or Polimodal, Escuela secundaria
Australia: Senior school, Secondary college
Austria: Gymnasium (Ober- & Unterstufe), Hauptschule, "Höhere Bundeslehranstalt (HBLA), Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (HTL)
Az?rbaycan: Orta M?kt?b
Bahamas, The: Junior High (grades 7-9), Senior High (grades 10-12)
Belgium: middelbare school, secundair onderwijs, humaniora, école secondaire, humanités
Bolivia: Educación Primaria Superior (grades 6-8) and Educación Secundaria, (grades 9-12)
Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Brazil: Ensino Médio (officially), Colegial (informally), Segundo Grau (formerly);
Bulgaria: ???????? (gymnasium), ????? (Lyceum)
Chile: Enseñanza Media.
Colombia: Bachillerato, Segunda Enseñanza(literally Second Learning)
People's Republic of China (China): zhong xue (??; literally, middle school), consisting of chu zhong (??; literally beginning middle) from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong (??; literally high middle) from grades 10 to 12
Republic of China (Taiwan): Junior High School(????), Senior High School(????), Vocational High School(??????), Military School(??), and Complete High School(????).
Canada: high school, secondary school, école secondaire, lycée, collegiate institute
Croatia: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Cyprus: G?µ??s??(gymnasium), ???a?? ???e?? (Lyceum)
Czech Republic: strední škola (literally middle school), gymnázium (gymnasium), strední odborné ucilište
Estonia: Gymnasium, Lyceum
Finland: lukio (Finn.) gymnasium (Swed.)
France: collège (junior), lycée (senior)
Germany: Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Realschule, Hauptschule, Fachoberschule
Greece: G?µ??s?? (3 years)(gymnasium), Ge???? ???e?? (3 years) (~1996,2006~present), ???a?? ???e?? (3 years), (1997~2006) (Lyceum)
Hungary: gimnázium (grammar school), középiskola (comprehensive school, lit. "middle-school"), szakközépiskola (vocational secondary school, lit. "specified middle-school")
Iceland: Menntaskóli, Framhaldskóli.
India: secondary school
Indonesia: Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) (lit. "Upper Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) (lit. "First Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) (vocational school, lit. "Middle Vocational School"),
Italy: scuola secondaria di primo grado (3 years) + scuola secondaria di secondo grado (5 years): Liceo and Istituto Tecnico.
Japan: chugakko (???; literally middle school), kotogakko (????; literally high school), chutokyoikugakko (??????; Secondary School) - In the pre-Meiji educational system, the equivalent was called "chusei"
Lithuania: vidurine mokykla (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Malaysia: secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school is used
Malta: skola sekondarja or secondary school
Mexico: Educación secundaria y preparatoria
Netherlands: middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
New Zealand: high school, college or secondary school
Paraguay: Educación Media
Peru: Educación Secundaria or Escuela Secundaria
Poland: gimnazjum (grades 7-9), liceum (grades 10-12)
Portugal: 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (5th and 6th grades), 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (7th to 9th grades), and Ensino Secundário, Liceu (10th to 12th grades)
Romania: gimnaziu (grades 5-8), liceu (grades 9-12)
Russia: ??????? ????? (literally middle school)
Serbia: gymnasium (4 years), professional schools (4 years), vocational schools (3 years)
South Korea: jung hakkyo (???; literally middle school), and godeung hakkyo (????; literally high-rank school)
Spain: Educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, compulsory secondary education, 4 years, 7th to 10th grade) and Bachillerato (non-compulsory secondary education, 2 years, 11th and 12th grade); formerly, primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente, 3 years, 9th to 11th grade) and C.O.U. (Curso de Orientación Universitaria, 1 year, 12th grade)
Switzerland: gymnasium, secondary school
United Kingdom: Secondary School (May be referred to as High School)
Ukraine: ??????? ?????? (transliteration: serednya osvita)
United States: high school (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
Uruguay: Liceo (4 years of compulsory education - Ciclo Básico -, and 2 years of specialization into humanities, sciences or biology - Bachillerato diversificado-).