Thursday, 5 May 2011

Secondary Education

Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School, Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.
The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer and the employee, because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment.
In Europe, the grammar school or academy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longer history.
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary school. Secondary education is generally the final stage of compulsory education. However, secondary education in some countries includes a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. The next stage of education is usually college or university. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary schools, high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, vocational schools and preparatory schools, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.
Education in Argentina
The school system is free and mandatory.
Australia School is compulsory in Australia between the ages of five/six-fifteen/sixteen or seventeen, depending on the state, with, in recent years, over three-quarters of people staying on until their thirteenth year in school. Government schools educate about two-thirds of Australian students, with the other third in independent schools, a proportion which is rising in many parts of Australia. Government schools are free although most schools charge what are known as "voluntary" contributions, while independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees. Regardless of whether a school is government or independent, it is required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks. Most school students, be they in government or independent school, usually wear uniforms, although there are varying expectations.
Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation:
Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12 Certificate
South Australia: South Australian Matriculation / South Australian Certificate of Education (SAM/SACE)
Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies Certificate / Northern Territory Certificate of Education (NTCE)
Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE)
New South Wales: Higher School Certificate (HSC)
Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education (TCE)
Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE)
Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE)
[edit] BrazilMain article: Education in Brazil
In Brazil, high school is officially called Ensino Médio (formerly Segundo Grau) and is also informally known as colegial. It is the last phase to basic education. Brazilian high school lasts 3 years, attempting to deepen what students have learned in the Ensino Fundamental. Brazilian high school students are referenced by their year – 1st, 2nd and 3rd years.
Unlike other countries, Brazilian students don't have a final test to conclude studies. Their approval depends only on their final grade on each subject. Each university elaborates its own test to select new students – this test, the vestibular, generally happens once a year. Enem, a non-mandatory national exam, evaluates high school students in Brazil and is used to rank both private and public schools.
The best scores in vestibular and in Enem and the best universities are concentrated on the Southern region of the country, mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, and in the Federal District. The lack of funds and historical and social problems contribute to poor attendance from the students, especially those in public schools. Nevertheless, some are national models, such as the Colégio Pedro II, named after the 19th century emperor.
Private establishments, on the other hand, may be recognized as academically excellent or merely as investments in social networking. Schedules vary from school to school. The subjects taught, however, are conceived by the Ministério da Educação (Ministry of Education) which emphasises the hard sciences.
The educational year begins in February and finishes in December; institutions are permitted to define their own actual start and end dates. They must, however, provide at least 200 days of classes per year.
Universities are also divided into public and private. At this level, public ones are considered excellent and their vestibular exam is highly competitive (the exam for med school in UNICAMP may hit 300 candidates per place). For better preparation, therefore, many students take a curso pré-vestibular (university preparation course), which is offered by large private high schools.
Education in the Czech Republic
The Czech school system is, due to historic reasons, almost the same as the German school system. The school system is free and mandatory to age 16. After the Základní škola (Elementary School) in age of 16 , students are directed to three different optional secondary education schools:
Strední odborné ucilište (SOU) - designed for students going into a trade (e.g., carpentry, masonry, auto-mechanic etc.) Education is 3 years long and entrance exam free, combined with practice(one week study in school/one week practice in factory, bakery,building site... etc.), finished with a certificate.
Strední odborná škola (SOŠ) - designed for students going into a profession (accountant, technician, kindergarten teacher..) and finishes with maturita as exit exam. The leaving exam consist of 2 compulsory and 2 optional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional ones depend on the type of school (mathematics, physics, accounting, etc.) The study is 4 years long and you need to pass an entrance exam (Czech Language and Mathematics or Physics, varies with the type of school)
Gymnasium (Gympl) - designed for students going to university/college and finishes with a maturita exam. Also with two mandatory subjects Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional subjects vary, usually between humanistic and science. The study is 4, 6 or 8 years long. In case of 6 (8) years one, the pupils finish elementary school two (four) years earlier and this two (four) years has harder studying programme on Gymnasium. There are also entry exams to all these programmes.
The maturita is required for study in University. The Abitur from Gymnasium is better for Humanistic pointed University and SOŠ Abitur is better for Technical pointed university.
Education in Denmark
In Denmark it is mandatory to receive education answering to the basic school syllabus until the 10th year of school education. Since 2009 has it been compulsory also to attend pre-school. Furthermore can pupils choose a 11th year of school. After the basic school choose the majority of pupils between ages 15–19 usually to go through the 3-year "Gymnasium", which is University-preparatory. If not attending Gymnasium, the most common alternative is attending vocational training. There are over 100 different vocational courses in Denmark.
Education in Finland
The Finnish education system is a comparatively egalitarian Nordic system. This means for example no tuition fees for full-time students and free meals are served to pupils. There are private schools but they are made unattractive by legislation.
The second level education is not compulsory, but an overwhelming majority attends. There is a choice between upper secondary school (lukio, gymnasium) and vocational school (ammatillinen oppilaitos, yrkesinstitut). Graduates of both upper secondary school and vocational school can apply to study in further education (University and Polytechnics).
Upper secondary school, unlike vocational school, concludes with a nationally graded matriculation examination (ylioppilastutkinto, studentexamen). Passing the test is a de facto prerequisite for further education. The system is designed so that approximately the lowest scoring 5% fails and also 5% get the best grade. The exam allows for a limited degree of specialization in either natural sciences or social sciences. The graduation is an important and formal family event, like christening, wedding, and funeral.
In the OECD's international assessment of student performance, PISA, Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003, Finnish 15-year-olds came first in reading literacy, science, and mathematics; and second in problem solving, worldwide. The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.
FranceIn France, secondary education is in two stages:
collège caters for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 15
lycées provides a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. Pupils are prepared for the diploma baccalauréat.
See article Secondary education in France.
Education in Germany
The German school system is free and compulsory through age 18. After the Grundschule (elementary school lasting 4–6 years), teachers recommend each pupil for one of three different types of secondary education. Parents have the final say about which school their child will attend.
Hauptschule - designed for students going into trades such as construction; complete after 9th or 10th grade. During apprenticeships, pupils then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has been subject to sigdren of immigrants with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
Realschule - designed for students who want to apprentice for white-collar jobs not requiring university studies, such as banking; complete after 10th grade. Those who change their minds and decide to attend university can proceed after testing to:
Gymnasium - academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or polytechnics. Some offer a classical education (Latin, Greek), while others concentrate on economics and the like. The curriculum leading to the Abitur degree were recently reduced from 13th grade to 12th grade ("G8," eight years of Gymnasium).
The Gesamtschule (comparable to American schools) puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite rare.
Students with special needs are assigned to Förderschule or Sonderschule.
Education in Hong Kong
secondary school (??, Cantonese: jung1 hok6), college (??)
Secondary education in Hong Kong is largely based on the British education system. Secondary school starts in the seventh year, or Form One, of formal education, after Primary Six. Students normally spend five years in secondary schools, of which the first three years (Forms One to Three) are compulsory like primary education. Forms Four and Five students prepare for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), which takes place after Form Five. Students obtaining a satisfactory grade will be promoted to Form Six. They then prepare for the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE) (colloquially the A-levels), which is to be taken after Form Seven. The HKALE and HKCEE results will be considered by universities for admission. Some secondary schools in Hong Kong are called 'colleges'. In some schools, Form Six and Form Seven are also called Lower Six and Upper Six respectively.
The HKCEE is equivalent to the British GCSE and HKALE is equivalent to the British A-level.
As of October 2004, there has been heated discussion on proposed changes in the education system, which includes (amongst others) reduction of the duration of secondary education from seven years to six years, and merging the two exams HKCEE and HKALE into one exam. The proposed changes will take effect in 2010.
India This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider moving more of the content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. (June 2010)
Education in India
In India, Before The Indian Constitutional Amendment in 2002, Article 45 (Articles 36 - 51 are on Directive-Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution was- “Art.45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.—The State shall endeavour to provide,within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” But that Constitutional obligation was time and again deferred - first to 1970 and then to 1980,1990 and 2000. The 10th Five-Year Plan visualizes that India will achieve the Universal Elementary Education by 2007. However, the Union Human Resource Development Minister announced in 2001 that India will achieve this target only by 2010. (Ninety-third Amendment) Bill, 2002, renumbered as the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, which was passed on 12 Dec 2002 stated: An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. . BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. Short title and commencement. (1) This Act may be called the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. (2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. 2. Insertion of new article 21A.- After article 21 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely Right to education.- "Art.21A. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.". 3. Substitution of new article for article 45.- For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:- Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. "Art.45. The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.". 4. Amendment of article 51A. - In article 51A of the Constitution, after clause (J), the following clause shall be added, namely:- "Art.(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.".
On the basis of Constitutional mandate provided in Article 41, 45, 46, 21A and various judgments of Supreme Court the Government of India has taken several steps to eradicate illiteracy, improvement the quality of education and make children back to school who left the school for one or the reasons. Some of these programmes are National Technology Mission, District Primary Education Programme, and Nutrition Support for Primary Education, National Open School, Mid- Day Meal Scheme, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and other state specific initiatives. Besides, this several states have enacted legislation to provide free and compulsory primary education such as- the Kerala Education Act 1959, the Punjab Primary Education Act 1960, the Gujarat Compulsory Primary Education Act 1961, U.P. Basic Education Act 1972, Rajasthan Primary Education Act 1964, etc.
However, the Constitution of India and Supreme Court have declared that the education is now a fundamental right of the people of India,
Historical backgroundIndia has a long tradition of organized education. As a historian has put it, “There is no other country where the love of learning had so early an origin or has exercised so lasting and powerful an influence.” However, educational effort in the country has come a long way from this traditional position in its definition, coverage as well as impact.The current educational system in the country operates in an altogether different context from the classical past. The country’s commitment to the provision of education for all and its endeavor to achieve this goal in a speedy fashion has to be seen in this complex milieu within which the educational system is currently functioning.
As the veteran educationist Shri J.P.Naik put it: “The Indian Society, especially the Hindu Society has been extremely inegalitarian, and this (provision of equality of educational opportunity) is the one value on the basis of which the society can be humanized and strengthened. In fact, the issue is so crucial that the Indian society cannot even hope to survive except on the basis of an egalitarian reorganization”. Between 1813 and 1921, the British administrators laid the foundations of the modern educational system. The principal positive contribution of the British administrators to equality was to give all citizens open access to educational institutions maintained from or supported by public funds. For instance, the worst difficulties were perhaps encountered when the problem of educating the “untouchable” castes came up.
The first test case arose in 1856 when a boy from an untouchable caste applied for admission to the government school at Dharwar. He was refused admission on the ground that it would result in the withdrawal of all the caste Hindu children from the school and thus in the closure of the school itself. But the decision was sharply criticized by the Governor General of India as well as by the Court of Directors in the East India Company and a clear policy was laid down that no untouchable child should be refused admission to a government school even if it meant the closure of the school (Report of the Indian Education Commission, 1882). The British administrators thus established, firmly and unequivocally, the right of every child irrespective of caste, sex or traditional taboos, to seek admission to all schools supported or aided by public funds. The British administrators refused to accept the principle of compulsory elementary education. The Indian nationalist thought, however, was firmly of the view that the provision of equality of educational opportunity must include a certain minimum general education to be provided to all children on a free and compulsory basis. A demand that four years of compulsory education (which would ensure effective literacy) should be provided to all children was put forward, for the first time before the Indian Education Commission by the Grand Old Man of India, Dadabhai Naoroji in 1881. Gopal Krishna Gokhale who moved a resolution on the subject in the Central Legislative Assembly in 1910 and again took the proposal vide a bill in 1912, neither of which achieved their objective. At this stage, it is illuminating to read the then announced Indian Educational Policy,
1913. It begins as under: “His Most Gracious Imperial Majesty the King Emperor, in replying to the address of the Calcutta University on the 6th January 1912, said: -
“It is my wish that there may be spread over the land a network of schools and colleges from which will go forth loyal and manly and useful citizens, able to hold their own in industries and agriculture and all the vocations in life. And it is my wish too, that the homes of my Indian subjects may be brightened and their labour sweetened by the spread of knowledge with all that follows in its train, a higher level of thought, comfort and of health. It is through education that my wish will be fulfilled, and the cause of education in India will ever be very close to my heart.”
The Government of India, have decided, with the approval of the Secretary of State, to assist Local Governments, by means of large grants from imperial revenues as funds become available’, to extend comprehensive systems of education in the several provinces. Each province has its own educational system, which has grown up under local conditions and become familiar to the people as a part of their general well being. In view of the diverse social conditions in India there cannot in practice be one set of regulations and one rate of progress for the whole of India. Even within provinces there is scope for greater variety in types if institutions that exists today. The Government of India have no desire to deprive Local Governments of interest and initiative in education. But it is important at intervals to review educational policy in India as a whole. Principles, bearing on education in its wider aspects and under modern conditions and conceptions, on orientalia and on the special needs of the domiciled community, were discussed at three important conferences of experts and representative non-officials held within the last two years. These principles are the basis of accepted policy. How far they can at any time find local application must be determined with reference to local conditions.
On the question compulsory and free elementary education, the Policy stated: The public demand for compulsory primary education continued however to grow, and between 1918 and 1931 compulsory education laws were passed for most parts of the country by the newly elected State legislatures in which Indians were in majority. In 1937, Mahatma Gandhi put forward his scheme of Basic Education under which education of seven or eight years duration was to be provided for all children and its content was to be revolutionized by building it round a socially useful productive craft. As a result of all these efforts, the idea that it was the duty of the state to provide free and compulsory education to all children till they reached the age of 14 years was nationally accepted as an important aspect of the overall effort to provide equality of opportunity. Under the wise leadership of Sir John Sargent, the then educational adviser to the Government of India, these ideas were accepted by the British administrators and the Post-war Plan of educational development in India (1944) known popularly as the Sargent Plan, put forward proposals to provide free and compulsory basic education to all children in the age group 6-14 over a period of 40 years. (1944–1984). The nationalist opinion did not accept this long period, and a committee under the chairmanship of B.G.Kher proposed that this goal could and should be achieved in a period of 16 years (1944–1960). It was this recommendation that was eventually incorporated in the Constitution as a Directive Principle of State Policy. It was thus not a mere statement of an ideal, but a well-thought out enunciation of a policy, which is yet to be implemented though a substantial component was sought to be achieved by 2000 under the Education for All plan.
A core curriculum is emphasized at the elementary school level. This is a carefully planned curriculum that in content it compares favourably with those adopted in a number of other countries. A common core can help in overcoming discrepancies between the educational opportunities of urban and rural people, and that of men and women, but it cannot eliminate those difficulties unless literacy rates improve, greater participation occurs in school and other changes take place in society.
In addition to the regular statistical return system, which is regularly compiled and published under the heading Education in India each academic year (There are normally 16 Tables. These statistics are also followed by 5 or 6 illustrations), there are also two expert institutions under the aegis of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, viz. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) which carry out regular research and surveys, and in-depth analyses.
Adult education – historical background and review of achievementsEradication of illiteracy has been one of the major national concerns of the Government of India since independence. During the first Five Year Plan, the program of Social Education, inclusive of literacy, was introduced as part of the Community Development Program (1952).
Efforts of varied types were made by the States for the spread of literacy. Among these, the Gram Shikshan Mohim initiated in Satara District of Maharashtra in 1959 was one of the successful mass campaigns. It aimed at completing literacy work village-by-village within a short period of 3 to 6 months, through the honorary services of primary teachers and middle-school and high school students, supported by the entire community. It achieved a good deal of success but suffered from the lack of follow-up due to financial constraints and some of its good work was lost as a consequence. In spite of these varied initiatives the program of adult literacy did not make much headway.
The topic was dealt at length by the Kothari Commission (1964–66) which emphasized the importance of spreading literacy as fast as possible. The Commission also observed that "literacy if it is to be worthwhile, must be functional". It suggested the following measures: ·Expansion of universal schooling of five-year duration for the age group 6 - 11. ·Provision of part-time education for those children of age group 11 - 14 who had either missed schooling or dropped out of school prematurely. ·Provision of part-time general and vocational education to the younger adults of age group 15 – 30. ·Use of mass media as a powerful tool of environment building for literacy. ·Setting up of libraries. ·Need for follow up program. ·Active role of universities and voluntary organisation at the State and district levels.
The National Policy on Education in 1968 not only endorsed the recommendations of the Education Commission but also reiterated the significance of universal literacy and developing adult and continuing education as matters of priority. While the formal elementary education program was supplemented by a Non-formal Education system, it was also decided to undertake Adult Literacy programs culminating in the Total Literacy mission approach.
A multi-pronged approach of universalization of elementary education and universal adult literacy has been adopted for achieving total literacy. The National Policy on Education (1986) has given an unqualified priority to the following three programs for eradication of illiteracy, particularly among women:- (a) Universalization of elementary education and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age. (b) A systematic program of non-formal education in the educationally backward states. (c) The National Literacy Mission which aims at making 100 million adults literate by 1997.
The major thrust of these programs is on promotion of literacy among women, members belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes particularly in the rural areas. The Adult Education Program consists of three components: basic literacy (including numeracy), functionality and civic awareness. The program covers different schemes so that finally it aims at helping learners achieve a ‘reasonable degree of self-reliance in literacy and functionality and better appreciation of the scope and value of science.
Of course, even before Independence, there were adult education programs. Mahatma Gandhi had education as one of his constructive programs, and as a mass campaign had through his movement, tried to make districts completely literate. Some success was also achieved. For instance Surat District, in erstwhile Bombay Presidency had been totally literate, but again relapsed into illiteracy for lack of follow-up. There were efforts at spreading by the Baroda Rulers, supplemented by a live library movement. Here again lack of follow-up and sustained efforts caused a relapse into illiteracy among the vulnerable sections. There were voluntary agencies working in the field. Some agencies as the Karnataka Adult Education Council, Gujarat Social Education Committee and Bombay City Social Education Committee has had large programs extending to the whole state or a metropolitan city. Literacy House of Lucknow did commendable work in this field. It came into existence in 1953 when its founder, Mrs. Welthy H. Fisher established it in small verandah at Allahabad, with a view to eradicate illiteracy and promote education in India. It was shifted to Lucknow in 1956.
The University Grants Commission, at its meeting held in 5 May 1971, considered the general pattern of development and assistance towards adult education in the university and agreed that “assistance to universities for program of adult education be made on a sharing basis of 75:25 and that the Commission’s assistance to university would not exceed Rs. 3 lakhs for the Fourth Plan period.” Departments of Continuing Education took up the work of “University goes to Masses”. The slogan “Each One, Teach One” caught the imagination of not only the students, but also a large number of educated individuals, and it looked like these programs will meet a major success. However, like most enthusiastically launched programs, they also fell by the wayside. A Farmers Training and Functional literacy project was launched in 1968-69, coordinating the activities of Ministries of Education, Agriculture and Information & Broadcasting. The Central Advisory Board of Education in its November 1975 meeting asked that the exclusive emphasis on formal system of education should be given up and a large element of non-formal education should be introduced within the system.
In one sense, though the Non-formal education system was launched with its own set of objectives, the main purpose was to tackle the problem of dropouts from the formal system. The dropout from the formal system continues to hover around 50% and have not shown any great variation in the last four decades (Dropout rate ranging in Grades I-IV from 64.0 in 1960-61, to 67 in 70-71, to 58.7 in 1980-81 to 44.3 in 1990-91. The dropout rate in Grades V-VIII ranged from 74.3 to 63.4 during these decades). It is not difficult to guess the collective identities of the victims, children who fail to survive at school. They are children of landless agricultural labourers and subsistence peasants. Caste-wise, a substantial proportion of them belongs to the Scheduled Castes that have been granted special rights including reservation in higher education and representative bodies, in the Constitution. The situation of children belonging to many of the Scheduled Tribes is worse, especially in the central Indian belt. Forest-dwelling tribal communities have had to bear the brunt of State initiatives in dam construction, development of tourism with the help of game sanctuaries and mining. Apart from such destabilizing experiences, bias against tribal cultures and languages also makes the school curriculum and the teacher a deterrent for the advancement of tribal education. There are about 40 million rural artisans in India. For them, the current standard school curriculum is trivial, and in a sense irrelevant and demeaning. No wonder, one realizes in a rather simple, unscientific way, these children stop coming to school early. Finally, the child residing in a slum, living in conditions of uncertainly and violence is always a likely case of early withdrawal or elimination.
In keeping with recent trends in the international literacy movement, the emphasis of mass literacy programs in India shifted from ‘literacy’ to ‘adult education’ through the intermediate phases of ‘functional literacy’ and ‘non-formal education’ during the last fifty years. The Policy Statement of the present program highlights the development of functional competencies and awareness of the adult learners as two of the three equally important components of the National Adult Education Program (1978). The third component is obviously literacy. Our Universities had also been roped into this activity.
The National Adult Education Program (NAEP) was inaugurated on October 2, 1978. In a statement in the Parliament on April 5, 1977, the Union Education Minister declared that “along with universalization of elementary education, highest priority in educational planning would be accorded to adult education.” The objective of the NAEP is “to organise adult education programs, with literacy as an indispensable component, for approximately 100 million illiterate persons in the age-group 15-35 with a view to providing them with skills for self-directed learning leading to self-reliant and active role in their own development and in the development of their environment.” In concrete terms, three R’s, social awareness and functionality are the three basic components of the NAEP. In spite of careful planning before the launch of this program (it had envisaged a phased program), the Sardar Patel Institute of Social and Economic Research, after a survey carried out in the initial flush of enthusiasm, observed about the progress of the program in a progressive state like Gujarat: “On the whole, while the NAEP in Gujarat was generally found to be addressed to the target groups kept in view under the NAEP and it was found to have some other commendable aspects, all things considered, its achievement in terms of spread of literacy is rather modest, and more so in terms of social awareness and functionality”. The report had gone on to say: “The more crucial aspects like the content of education, pedagogy, etc. can be probed into only if longer time is available, or ideally, on an ongoing basis. It is these aspects which have contributed most to the continuing stagnation of even the spread of literacy in the country. This study is not sufficient to indicate whether breakthrough in these areas is being made, and whether the adult education program is assuming the character of a Mass Movement as would be desirable and is clearly the intent of NAEP” (1979).
Then came the National Literacy Mission (NLM). For a short while during the era of the high profile technology missions, some attention was given to issues like immunization, safe drinking water and literacy along with talk of people’s participation and social audit of these programs. In 1989, the district-based Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) emerged as a program strategy for the National Literacy Mission against this background. While it was correctly envisaged that the initial social mobilization for a time-bound campaign provides the inspiration to spark for a mass participation of people, volunteering their time and energy for a cause like literacy, the follow-up program was not worked out clearly. However, admitting and recognizing the many flaws and failures of the ‘campaign approach’, even as early as1994, NLM continued with the same TLC strategy and tried to bolster it with better monitoring, internal evaluation and presently with a revival effort through what is called ‘Operation Restoration’. Reviewing the functioning of these programs, Avik Ghosh concludes: “The present focus of NLM on literacy has to shift, and similarly the mission-mode-time-bound thrust of NLM should give way to a more durable and sustained program of adult education that responds to the needs of adults as individuals and also as members of the disadvantaged groups”. The Total Literacy Campaigns, initially at least, helped in fostering a participatory approach in dealing with this issue, though here again, the problem of sustaining the momentum has remained. In the budget for 1999–2000, allocation for the Rural Functional Literacy Project does not find a special mention. The overall allocation to adult education has, however, been increased by about 40%.
Unless it be in the context of revolutionary social transformation, the lack of spectacular success in a program like Adult Education and of sustaining its momentum is understandable. It is after all a far distant cousin in terms of financial outlays to the formal system (In the budget of 1999-2000, the total allocation of resources (both Plan and non-plan) for the four programs of Elementary Education, Operation Black board, Non-formal education and Adult Education was respectively, 3037, 400, 350 and 113.4 crores respectively). Further, there is the very real problem of pedagogy. For instance, as Prof. Jalaluddin (1986) says: “While 1652 mother tongues have been identified in the recent censuses in India, only 15 major literary languages have been accorded political status under the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Then there is the problem of script. In the context of a nationwide adult literacy and education program, the question of the acquisition of more than one writing system or even script by linguistic minorities becomes an important area of language planning. The term biliteracy is used in this context in India.” Further in countries like India which have a long tradition of transmission of ideas and wisdom orally, such individual and societal transformations through a mass literacy campaign, are rather a form of renewal in nature than being additive or extensive”. There is also the problem continued sustenance of the campaign approach. There are some hopeful signs of ICT-supported services being used to bridge the gulf. Some collaborative partnership of the Government of India and non-governmental agencies in partnership with International Organizations and private sector has been mooted and the results of such collaborative efforts may perhaps show a way.
And yet, the importance of this component cannot be gainsaid. “In our country, numerous persons enter adulthood without proper education and consequently their self-confidence is shaky. In a fast-changing environment of economic and cultural change, they will continue to be edged out unless their capacities are actively consolidated and improved so as to encounter the world outside on equal terms”. This program can be in the nature of a Sunset program (referred to later in this Paper); but till then, i.e. literacy becomes self-sustaining fact with self-arising demand for its very usefulness and need for a fuller life, no Government should be allowed to ignore this aspect.
FutureThe need to go into a learning mode as also conditions for creating capabilities in the education system to meet the needs of knowledge growth, communication expansion, reinforcement of cultural roots is indicated. Changing needs of Educational Technology and entry of computers and Integration of Information and Communication Technology demand new structures, which the system should be able to assimilate. Renewal of education also calls for provision for regular reviews, which reckons also changing scenarios and developments in emerging technologies.
In a UNESCO publication, “Education in Asia and the Pacific”, Raja Roy Singh has rightly written: “The dynamics of education and its role in each society in development and transformation make it essential that education continuously renews itself in order to prepare for a future rather than for obsolescence. This renewal process derives from a variety of sources which include: the growth of human knowledge, which is the basic component of education; the heritage of collective experience and values which education transmits to the new generations; the means and methods of communication by which knowledge and values are transmitted and the new values and aspirations which the human spirit adds to the collective experience and wisdom of the past or by which the heritage of the past is reinterpreted and reassessed.”
Current literacy programs1.Rural Functional Literacy Project (RFLP): Adult Education Centres are set up by RFLP in all the States and Union Territories. They are fully funded by the Central Government although the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations are responsible for its implementation.
2.State Adult Education Program (SAEP): Funded fully by the State Governments, this program aims at strengthening ongoing Adult Education Programs and expanding its coverage to ensure that the programs reach women and other underprivileged groups.
3.Adult Education through Voluntary Agencies: A Central Scheme of Assistance to Voluntary Agencies exists to facilitate the participation of Voluntary Agencies. The Government of India provides financial grants to Voluntary Agencies on program basis.
4.Involvement of students and youth in Adult Education Programs. The University Grants Commission provides 100 per cent financial assistance to colleges and universities to support their active involvement in literary and adult education activities. Specifically, 50,000 adult education centres are expected to be organized under this program. Simultaneously with the adult education program, the college and university students will be engaged in spreading universal primary education among non-school-going children.
5.Nehru Yuvak Kendras: This non-student youth organization has been developing training programs to educate young people according to their identified felt needs.
6.Non-Formal Education for Women and Girls: This project puts special emphasis on improving women’s socio-economic status by ensuring their participation in development programs in addition to efforts for family planning and promotion of welfare of children. This program is a joint effort of the Government of India and UNICEF.
7.Shramik Vidyapeeths: This program has been established and ever since funded by the Government of India with the aim to provide integrated education to urban and individual workers and their families in order to raise their productivity and enrich their present life.
8.Central Board for Workers Education : This program aims at providing literacy to unskilled and semi-skilled persons as well as raising their awareness and functionality. Its special feature is to meet the recognized needs of the workers with a specially matched program.
9.Functional Literacy for Adult Women : Started in the International Year of Women, under the sponsorship of the Government of India, this program covers health and hygiene, food and nutrition, home management and child care, education, and vocational and occupational skills.
10.Incentives Awards Scheme for Female Adult Literacy : designed to promote literacy among 15-35 year old women, this scheme presents awards to adult education centres (at the district, and Union Territory levels). At the State level, the awards are intended for equipments of various kinds as well as training facilities.
11.Post-Literacy and Follow-up Program : The program has been in operation since 1984-1985. The Directorate of Adult Education has developed broad guidelines for the preparation of neo-literate materials for the State Governments and State Resource Centres. Prototype neo-literate materials have also been produced.
The listed activities reflect India’s determination to make the entire population literate by involving the other Government agencies related to development as well Universities and Voluntary Organization in literary activities. The responsibility for planning and financing these activities, however, rests with the Central and State Governments.
Education system in IndiaThe education system in India has savored a special bond between the teacher and the pupil since time unknown. In fact, India was the country to have established what we know as the 'gurukul' system of education. However, with the coming of the Britishers, English has become a part and parcel of Indian education system. Today English is the third major medium of instruction in India after Hindi and Marathi.
The present education system in India mainly comprises primary education, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher education. Elementary education consists of eight years of education. Each of secondary and senior secondary education consists of two years of education. Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or the 12th standard. Depending on the stream, doing graduation in India can take three to five years. Post graduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational institutes also remains open.
With more than 17,000 colleges, 400 universities, 13 institutes of national importance and various other vocational institutes, the higher education system in India is one of the largest in the world.
However, it is the fast integrating world economy and corresponding rise of students mobility that have made studying in India an attractive option. There are a large number of Indian as well as foreign students who apply every year to Indian universities and colleges. For all those who wish to study in India, it is very important to get prior and correct information about the courses that you would like to undertake, the university you want to apply to and how to go about the application procedure. For an international student, it is also important to know the accommodation facilities, weather conditions, food habits and cost of living in the city in which he or she intends to study.
Education for the marginalized in IndiaAs education is the means for bringing socio- economic transformation in a society, various measures are being taken to enhance the access of education to the marginalized sections of the society. One such measure is the introduction of the reservation system in the institutes of higher education. Under the present law, 7.5% seats in the higher educational institutes are reserved for the scheduled tribes, 15% for scheduled castes and 27% for the non creamy layers of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs). Under the Indian constitution, various minority groups can also set up their own educational institutes. Efforts are also being taken to improve the access to higher education among the women of India by setting up various educational institutes exclusively for them or reserving seats in the already existing institutes. The growing acceptance of distance learning courses and expansion of the open university system is also contributing a lot in the democratization of higher education in India.
Facilities for international students in IndiaSurprises are always waiting as you enter any new place. One may take time adjusting him/ her in the new environment. It is normal to feel excited, confused and even overwhelmed. These problems are mainly faced by the international students when they arrive in India. They may face problems like language problem, accommodation problem and food problem and so on. But international student’s offices at most of the institutes provide facilities for International Students in India that can ease their woes. Moreover the Government of India has also set up the Education Consultants of India to cater to the needs of the growing number of International Students in India.
Colleges and institutes The international students are required to carry the necessary documents along with them such as admission letter, passport, residence permit etc. The international students can avail the residential permit after registering themselves at the Foreigner’s Registration Office (F.R.O) within a period of seven days from their arrival.
All over the country offer different courses for the international students. International students can apply for medical courses, engineering courses, applied arts courses etc. The government has reserved some seats for foreign students and students from other developing countries. International students can get admission through this reserved quota. For more information related to these admissions, the students can contact the Indian High Commission located in their countries.
Self-financing international students looking for admission to postgraduate courses can also choose from the various courses that are offered by the Indian universities. Apart from the Government of India, there are some private educational institutes that provide various facilities for international students in India.
The Government of India offers various scholarships annually to international students. These scholarships are offered to those who are interested in pursuing their studies in India. Some of the scholarships offered by the government are Cultural Exchange Program, Commonwealth Scheme, SAARC Scholarship Scheme and ICCR Scholarship Scheme.
Advantages of studying in IndiaIndia is fast becoming a major economic power in the world today. And if its growth trend continues for some more years, it would soon be playing a major role in the world economy along with China. This itself has been a major cause of attraction for many international students. Moreover, India's successful stint with democracy (except the years between 1975–1977) has also been a major magnetic force for scholars around the world. However, apart from knowing India well, there are some other advantages that are attracting students to study in India. Some of these are -
Low Cost:
The cost of education in India is quite low as compared to many other countries of the world.
Quality Education:
Quality of education is not uniform throughout the length and breath of the country. However, there are some educational institutes in India that provide world class education.Indian Institutes of Technology,All India Institute of Medical Science - AIIMS, Delhi. Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. Christian Medical College, Vellore. JIPMER, Puducherry. Jawaharial Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh. Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. National Institute of Fashion Technology NIFT – New Delhi. Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi. Loyola College , Chennai. Indian Institutes of Management, Indian Institutes of Science, National Law Schools, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Presidency College , Chennai. Anna University , Chennai National Institute of Technology Tiruchirapalli Tamil Naidu, Madras University, Hyderabad University, Campus Law Center, Delhi University, Delhi. Faculty of Law,National Law School of India Univ, Bangalore. NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad. National Law Institute University, Bhopal. National Law University, Jodhpur, Allahabad University Allahabad, Kumaon-University of Uttarakhand. Garwal-University of Uttarakhand. Banaras Hindu University Of Varanasi. CIHTS Sarnath (Central University of Tibetan Studies). Delhi University and are some such Institutes.The government of India is also speeding up the efforts to establish more such institutes that can offer quality education in India.
Financial Assistance: Various scholarships, education loans and other financial aids are now available for studying in India today.
Consultation Service: The government of India provides consultation service to the interested international students through Education Consultants of India (Ed.CIL). Thus one can get all the information about the Indian education system, cost of education, duration, visa, accommodation facilities even before landing up in India.
Unique Courses: Apart from above mentioned advantages, one can also study some unique courses that were discovered and developed by the traditional knowledge system of India. Ayurveda, Sankrit, Yoga, Hindi are some such courses that enthuse many international students.
Note-The right to education will be meaningful only and only if the all the levels education reaches to all the sections of the people otherwise it will fail to achieve the target set out by our Founder Father to make Indian society an egalitarian society.
Education in Iraq
Girls at a secondary school in IraqSecondary Education in Iraq comprises TWO stages, each ending in Baccalaureate Examination
Intermediate three years
Preparatory three years.
No student is admitted to college in Iraq before passing the Baccalaureate Examination held by this Ministry for Preparatory Schools.
The maximum obtainable mark is 100, the minimum passing mark is 50.
Education in Malaysia
The national secondary education in Malaysia, modelled after the (historical) English system, consists of 5 school years referred to as "forms" (tingkatan in Malay). Students begin attending secondary schools in the year they turn 13, after sitting for the UPSR (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah or Primary School Assessment Examination) at the end of primary school. Students failing the academic requirement in UPSR are required to read an additional year called the Remove (Peralihan) year before they are allowed to proceed to Form 1. Automatic promotion up to Form 5 has been in place since 1996. Some secondary schools offer an additional two years known as sixth form, divided into lower sixth and upper sixth.

A Malaysian secondary school Forms are known as Lower Secondary (Menengah Rendah), while Forms 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary (Menengah Tinggi). Streaming into Art, Science or Commerce streams is done at the beginning of the Upper Secondary stage. Students sit for a standardised test at the end of both stages; Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) for Lower Secondary, and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM, equivalent to the O-Level examination) for Upper Secondary. At the end of the sixth form, students sit for the Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia or the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (equivalent to the A levels). The language of instruction in national secondary schools is Malay except for language, science and mathematics subjects. Science and mathematics subjects are taught in English since 2003, but Malay will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.
Education in Mexico
Lower-secondary education (3 years) is considered part of basic education in Mexico and is compulsory. For entry, students are required to have successfully completed six years of primary education. The next stage, Upper-Secondary Education or Preparation School ("Preparatoria") is non-compulsory and has three pathways: General upper-secondary, Technical professional education, and Technological upper-secondary, as it has been called "Bachillerato" (For the full Secondary education 6 years) it has been frequently confused with the U.S.A. "Bachelors Level" which is called "Licenciatura o Ingeniería" in Latin American countries (well not all, as in Venezuela, the U.S.A. Bachelor´s Level is refereed as "Doctor".
Education in the Netherlands
In The Netherlands, high school is called middelbare school (literally: "middle-level school") and starts right after the 6th grade of primary school (group 8). The pupils who attend high school are around the age of 12. Because education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16 (and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18), all pupils must attend high school.
The high schools are part of the voortgezet onderwijs (literally: "continued education"). The voortgezet onderwijs consists of 3 main streams: vmbo, which has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels; havo, which has 5 grades, and vwo, which has 6 grades. The choice for a particular stream is made based on the scores of an aptitude test (most commonly the CITO test), the advice of the grade 6 teacher, and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers. It is possible to switch between streams. After completing a particular stream, a pupil can continue in the penultimate year of the next stream, from vmbo to havo, and from havo to vwo.
Successfully completing a particular stream grants access to different levels of tertiary education. After vmbo, a pupil can continue training at the mbo ("middle-level applied education"). A havo diploma allows for admission to the hbo ("higher professional education"), which are universities of professional education. Only with vwo can a pupil enter into a research university.
Secondary education in New Zealand
In New Zealand students attend secondary school from the ages from about 13 to 18. Formerly known as Forms 3 to 7, these grades are now known as Years 9 to 13. Schooling is compulsory until the student's 15th (with permission) or 16th birthday. In some areas of the country, secondary school is colloquially known as "college". NCEA is the Government-supported school qualification. New Zealand also has intermediate schools, but these cover the last two years of primary education (years 7 and 8) and are not secondary schools.
Education in Pakistan
Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. Upon completion of grade 10, students are expected to take a standardised test administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE). Upon successful completion of this examination, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate (or SSC). This locally termed as 'matriculation certificate' or 'matric' for short. Students then enter a college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of grade 12, they again take a standardised test which is also administered by the regional boards. Upon successful completion of this test, students are awarded the Higher Secondary (School) Certificate (or HSC). This level of education is also called the F.Sc./F.A. or 'intermediate'. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences) and commerce. Some technical streams have recently been introduced for grades 11 and 12.
Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are also available but not maintained by the BISE but by other examination boards. Most common alternative is the General Certificate of Education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O Level) and Advanced Level (or A Level) respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and Edexcel of the Pearson PLC. Advanced Placement (or AP) is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as 'High School Education' instead. AP exams are monitored by a North American examination board, College Board and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can also be given privately.
ParaguaySee also: List of high schools in Paraguay
In Paraguay, the secondary education is called Educación Media. After nine year of Educación Escolar Básica (Primary School), the student can choose to go to either a Bachillerato Técnico (Vocational School) or a Bachillerato Científico (High School), both are part of the Educación Media' system. This two forms of secondary education last three years, and are usually located in the same campus called Colegio. The Bachillerato Técnico combine general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. Some of the fields are mechanical, electricity, commerce, construction, business administration, etc.
After completing secondary education, one can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both Técnico and Científico schooling.
Education in Portugal
In Portuguese, the word for high school used to be liceu, it was now recently replaced for Escola Secundária (secondary school which includes 7th to 9th grade) and covers grades 10th to 12th. After completing High School students may choose to go to Universidade (University) or Instituto Politécnico (Polytechnic Institute). Also, students may choose to pursue an artistic career, in such case they may audition to the National Conservatory or one of Portugal's Art Schools. The Portuguese government is currently considering the extension of the Compulsory Education to the 12th grade, instead of the 9th. In High School, student can only move on to the next grade if they pass with a satisfactory CGPA (cumulative grade point average).
Education in the Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland secondary school starts at the age of 12, and lasts three or optionally five or six years. The main types of secondary school are: community schools, comprehensive schools, colleges (though this term is more usually applied to third-level institutions like universities), vocational schools, voluntary secondary schools and meánscoileanna (secondary schools that teach all subjects through Irish). After three years (age 14-16), every student takes a compulsory state exam known as the Junior Certificate. Typically a student will sit exams in 9 to 11 subjects; English (L1), Irish (L2), a Foreign Language (L3) and Mathematics are compulsory.
After completing the Junior Certificate, a student may continue for two years to take a second state exam, the Leaving Certificate, around age 17-18. Students typically take 6-8 subjects. Except in exceptional circumstances, subjects taken must include Irish (L1), English (L2), a foreign language (L3) and Mathematics. Leaving Certificate results directly determine admission to university via a ranking system managed by the CAO. More than 80% of students who complete the Junior Certificate continue to the Leaving Certificate.
There is an optional year in many secondary schools in Ireland known as Transition Year, which some students choose to take after completing the Junior Certificate, and before starting the Leaving Certificate. Focusing on broadening horizons, the year is often structured around student projects such as producing a magazine, charity work, running a small business, etc. Regular classes may be mixed with classes on music, drama, public speaking, etc. Transition Year is not formally examined but student progress is monitored by teachers on a continuous basis. Programs vary from school to school. This year also focuses on giving the children an insight into the working world through work experience placements.
In addition to the main school system, Ireland has a parallel system of vocational schools, which place less focus on academic subjects and more on vocational and technical skills - around 25% of students attend these. Many vocational schools also offer night classes to adults. There is also a prominent movement known as Gaelscoileanna where every subject is taught through the Irish Language, and these are growing fast in number.
Education in the Republic of Macedonia
High school in Republic of Macedonia is called "?????? ????????" or "middle school", and the structure is left from the socialists period. Reforms are conducting at the moment, so the education would be appropriate with the most of the leading world countries.That means that there are still many forms. In general there is high school for preparing for every faculty on the university. There are: electro technical high school, mechanical high school, economics high school, pharmaceutical, medical,...and natural sciences and linguistics gymnasium. The high school is attended between the years of 14 and 18.
Secondary education in Russia
There were around 60,000 general education schools in 2007–2008 school year; this number includes ca. 5,000 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc., 2,300 advanced general-purpose schools and 1,800 schools for all categories of disabled children; it does not include vocational technical school and technicums. Private schools accounted for 0.3% of elementary school enrolment in 2005 and 0.5% in 2005.
According to a 2005 UNESCO report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.
Secondary education in Singapore
Children attend Primary school for the first 6 levels, then secondary schools for the next 4/5 levels, which is followed by either junior college for 2 year courses or centralised institutes for 3-year courses.
Based on results of the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), Singapore's students undergo secondary education in either the Special(Abolished in 2008), Express, Normal streams or the Integrated Programme (implemented in 2004). Both the Special and Express are 4-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (GCE) 'Ordinary' - 'O' level examination. The difference between Special and Express is that the former takes higher Mother Tongue, which can be used as a first language in exams instead of the subject "mother tongue" that Express students take. However if some Express students can cope with higher Mother Tongue, they are allowed to used it as a first language in exams too.
The Normal stream is a four-year course leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Normal" - "N" level examination, with the possibility of a 5th year followed by a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Ordinary" - "O" level examination. It is split into "Normal (Academic)" and "Normal (Technical)" where in the latter students take subjects that are technical in nature, such as Design and Technology.
The Integrated Programme (IP) is a 6 year programme offered to the top 10 percent of the cohort to pass through the O level exams, and go straight to the affiliated JC.
After the second year of a secondary school course, students are typically streamed into a wide range of course combinations, making the total number of subject they have to sit for in "O" level six to ten subjects. This includes science (Physics, Biology and Chemistry), humanities (Elective Geography/History, Pure Geography/History, Social Studies, Literature, etc.) and additional mathematics subject at a higher level, or "combined" subject modules.
Some schools have done away with the O level examination, and pupils only sit for the A level examination or the International Baccalaureate at the end of their sixth year (known as Year 6 or Junior College 2).
Co-curricular activities have become compulsory at the Secondary level, where all pupils must participate in at least one core CCA, and participation is graded together with other things like Leadership throughout the four years of Secondary education, in a scoring system. Competitions are organised so that students can have an objective towards to work, and in the case of musical groups, showcase talents.
 SloveniaMain article: Education in Slovenia
In Slovenia, a variety of high-school institutions for secondary education exists one can choose in accordance with his or her interests, abilities and beliefs. The majority of them are public and government-funded, although there are some diocesan upper secondary schools and a Waldorf upper secondary school, which are private and require tuition to be paid.
Upper secondary schools (Sln. gimnazije) are the most elite and the most difficult high-school programmes, intended for the best students that wish to pursue university education in the future. They are further divided into general upper secondary schools, classical upper secondary schools, technical upper secondary schools, upper secondary schools for arts, and upper secondary schools for business. They all last for four years and conclude with a compulsory leaving examination (Sln. matura) that is a prerequsite for studying at universities. Their curricula include a wide range of subjects that should deliver a broad general knowledge.
Technical high schools last for four years and cover a wide range of disciplines. They end with a vocational leaving examination and allow pupils to study at vocational or professional colleges.
Vocational high schools come in two varieties: the dual and in school-based programme. For the former, the apprenticeship is provided by employers, while the practical training for the latter is offered in school. Both of them complete with a final examination. Students may continue their education in the two-year vocational-technical programme (colloquially known as 3+2 programme), which prepares them for vocational leaving exam if they want to pursue higher education.
The leaving exam course is a one-year programme, intended for vocational leaving exam graduates. After completing leaving exam course, they take the leaving examination, which makes the eligible for university education.
The Vocational course is a one-year programme provided to upper secondary school students who, for various reasons, do not want to continue their education. It concludes with a final examinations, qualifying the applicants for a selected occupation.
Education in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom secondary schools offer secondary education covering the later years of schooling. State secondary schools in England and Wales are classed as either (selective) grammar schools, (non-selective) comprehensive schools, city technology colleges or academies. Within Scotland, there are only two types of state-run schools, Roman Catholic or non-denominational. Most secondary schools in England and Wales are comprehensive schools. Grammar schools have been retained in some counties in England. Academies (previously known as city academies) are a new type of school introduced in 2000 by the New Labour government of Tony Blair. Independent secondary schools generally take pupils at 13.
The table below lists the equivalent secondary school year systems used in the United Kingdom:
Scotland England, Wales Northern Ireland Equivalent Ages
Primary 7 Year 7 (First Form) Year 8 (First Form) 11-12
First Year (Secondary 1) Year 8 (Second Form) Year 9 (Second Form) 12-13
Second Year (Secondary 2) Year 9 (Third Form) Year 10 (Third Form) 13-14
Third Year (Secondary 3) Year 10 (Fourth Form) Year 11 (Fourth Form) 14-15
Fourth Year (Secondary 4) Year 11 (Fifth Form) Year 12 (Fifth Form) 15-16
Fifth Year (Secondary 5) Year 12
Lower Sixth AS
First Year College Year 13 [Post 16] Lower Sixth 16-17
Sixth Year (Secondary 6) Year 13
Upper Sixth A2
Second Year College Year 14 [Post 16] Upper Sixth 17-18
Private schools in England and Wales generally still refer to years 7-11 as 1st-5th Form, or alternatively privates schools refer to Year 7 as IIIrds (Thirds), Y8 as LIV (Lower Four), Y9 as UIV (Upper Four), Y10 as LV (Lower Fifth), Y11 as UV (Upper Fifth) and then Sixth-Form.
England, Wales and Northern IrelandEducation in England, Wales, Northern Ireland
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, students usually transfer from primary school straight to secondary school at age 11. In a few parts of the UK there are middle schools for ages 9 to 13 (similar to American middle schools), and upper schools for ages 13–18. A handful of 8-12 middle schools, an 12-16 or 18 secondary schools still exist. These schools were first introduced in September 1968, and the number rose dramatically during the 1970s, but the number of such schools has declined since the mid 1980s.
It is uncommon, but sometimes secondary schools (particularly in South West Wales) can also be split into 'Upper' (ages 13–16) and 'Lower' secondary schools (ages 11–13).
Education is compulsory up until the end of year 11 (the last Friday in June in the academic year a person turns 16), and schooling can continue for a further two years after that. Traditionally the five years of compulsory secondary schooling from ages 11 to 16 were known as "first year" through to "fifth year," (and still are in the private sector) but from September 1990 these years were renumbered Year 7 through to Year 11 (Year 8 to Year 12 in Northern Ireland) with the coming of the National Curriculum.
After Year 11 a student can opt to remain at school, transfer to a college, or to leave education and seek work or to start an apprenticeship. Those who stay at school enter Years 12 and 13 (Years 13 and 14 in Northern Ireland). These years are traditionally known as the Sixth Form ("Lower Sixth" and "Upper Sixth"), and require students to specialise in three to five subjects for their A Levels. In ever-increasing numbers since the 1990s some students also undertake more vocational courses at college such as a BTEC or other such qualification.
This is an unusually specialised curriculum for this age group by international standards, and recently some moves have been made to increase the number of subjects studied. After attaining the relevant A Level qualifications the student can enter university.
Education in Scotland
In Scotland, students transfer from primary to secondary education at either 11 or 12 years old. Pupils usually attend the same secondary school as their peers, as all secondaries have 'intake primaries'. Pupils either attend a Roman Catholic, or non-denominational school according to their or more commonly their parents' beliefs. Pupils in Scotland attend the same secondary school throughout their education; there are no sixth-form colleges in Scotland.
The first and second years of secondary school (abbreviated to S1 and S2) is a continuation of the 5-14 curriculum started in primary school. After which students choose which subjects they wish to study with certain compulsory subjects such as English and Mathematics for S3 and S4. These are called Standard Grades, but some schools use Intermediates which take two years to complete with an exam at the end of S4. After Standard Grades/Intermediates, some students leave to gain employment or attend further education colleges, however nowadays most students study for Highers, of which five are usually studied. These take a year to complete. After which some students decide to apply for university or stay on for 6th year, where other Highers are gained, or Advanced Highers are studied. Due to the nature of schooling in Scotland, undergraduate honours degree programmes are four years long as matriculation is normally at the completion of highers in S5 (age 16-17), which compares with three years for the rest of the UK. As well as instruction through the English language education Gaelic medium education is also available throughout Scotland.
Secondary education in the United States
As part of education in the United States, secondary education comprises grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. This depends on the school district and how it is comprised. Grades 9 through 12 is the most common grade structure for high school.
VietnamHigh school in Vietnam is called Trung hoc pho thong, which mean "Popular Middle School", for children from grade ten to grade twelve (age of 16 to 18). In high school, students have 12 subjects to learn, and all the 12 subjects are compulsory. For each main subject (Literature, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography and Foreign language), there are two levels of study: Basic and Advanced. Subjects in advanced level will receive more time and intensiveness than the basic ones do. Students are divided into five groups:
Basic group: All subjects are in basic level.
Group A: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are in advanced level.
Group B: Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology are in advanced level.
Group C: Literature, History and Geography are in advanced level.
Group D: Mathematics, Literature and Foreign language are in advanced level.
Students will graduate from high school if they have passed Graduation Tests of 6 subjects. If not, they must wait for the next year's tests. Students must graduate from high school to attend a university or college.
Names for secondary education by countryArgentina: Secundaria or Polimodal, Escuela secundaria
Australia: Senior school, Secondary college
Austria: Gymnasium (Ober- & Unterstufe), Hauptschule, "Höhere Bundeslehranstalt (HBLA), Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (HTL)
Az?rbaycan: Orta M?kt?b
Bahamas, The: Junior High (grades 7-9), Senior High (grades 10-12)
Belgium: middelbare school, secundair onderwijs, humaniora, école secondaire, humanités
Bolivia: Educación Primaria Superior (grades 6-8) and Educación Secundaria, (grades 9-12)
Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Brazil: Ensino Médio (officially), Colegial (informally), Segundo Grau (formerly);
Bulgaria: ???????? (gymnasium), ????? (Lyceum)
Chile: Enseñanza Media.
Colombia: Bachillerato, Segunda Enseñanza(literally Second Learning)
People's Republic of China (China): zhong xue (??; literally, middle school), consisting of chu zhong (??; literally beginning middle) from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong (??; literally high middle) from grades 10 to 12
Republic of China (Taiwan): Junior High School(????), Senior High School(????), Vocational High School(??????), Military School(??), and Complete High School(????).
Canada: high school, secondary school, école secondaire, lycée, collegiate institute
Croatia: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Cyprus: G?µ??s??(gymnasium), ???a?? ???e?? (Lyceum)
Czech Republic: strední škola (literally middle school), gymnázium (gymnasium), strední odborné ucilište
Denmark: gymnasium
Estonia: Gymnasium, Lyceum
Finland: lukio (Finn.) gymnasium (Swed.)
France: collège (junior), lycée (senior)
Germany: Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Realschule, Hauptschule, Fachoberschule
Greece: G?µ??s?? (3 years)(gymnasium), Ge???? ???e?? (3 years) (~1996,2006~present), ???a?? ???e?? (3 years), (1997~2006) (Lyceum)
Hungary: gimnázium (grammar school), középiskola (comprehensive school, lit. "middle-school"), szakközépiskola (vocational secondary school, lit. "specified middle-school")
Iceland: Menntaskóli, Framhaldskóli.
India: secondary school
Indonesia: Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) (lit. "Upper Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) (lit. "First Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) (vocational school, lit. "Middle Vocational School"),
Italy: scuola secondaria di primo grado (3 years) + scuola secondaria di secondo grado (5 years): Liceo and Istituto Tecnico.
Japan: chugakko (???; literally middle school), kotogakko (????; literally high school), chutokyoikugakko (??????; Secondary School) - In the pre-Meiji educational system, the equivalent was called "chusei"
Liechtenstein: gymnasium
Lithuania: vidurine mokykla (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
Malaysia: secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school is used
Malta: skola sekondarja or secondary school
Mexico: Educación secundaria y preparatoria
Netherlands: middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
New Zealand: high school, college or secondary school
Norway: Videregående
Paraguay: Educación Media
Peru: Educación Secundaria or Escuela Secundaria
Poland: gimnazjum (grades 7-9), liceum (grades 10-12)
Portugal: 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (5th and 6th grades), 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (7th to 9th grades), and Ensino Secundário, Liceu (10th to 12th grades)
Romania: gimnaziu (grades 5-8), liceu (grades 9-12)
Russia: ??????? ????? (literally middle school)
Serbia: gymnasium (4 years), professional schools (4 years), vocational schools (3 years)
South Korea: jung hakkyo (???; literally middle school), and godeung hakkyo (????; literally high-rank school)
Spain: Educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, compulsory secondary education, 4 years, 7th to 10th grade) and Bachillerato (non-compulsory secondary education, 2 years, 11th and 12th grade); formerly, primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente, 3 years, 9th to 11th grade) and C.O.U. (Curso de Orientación Universitaria, 1 year, 12th grade)
Sweden: gymnasium
Switzerland: gymnasium, secondary school
Turkiye: Lise
United Kingdom: Secondary School (May be referred to as High School)
Ukraine: ??????? ?????? (transliteration: serednya osvita)
United States: high school (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
Uruguay: Liceo (4 years of compulsory education - Ciclo Básico -, and 2 years of specialization into humanities, sciences or biology - Bachillerato diversificado-).

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